Volcanoes Around the World
A volcano is a mountain that opens downward to a pool of molten rock below the surface of the earth. When pressure builds up, eruptions occur. Gases and rock shoot up through the opening and spill over or fill the air with lava fragments. Eruptions can cause lateral blasts, lava flows, hot ash flows, mudslides, avalanches, falling ash and floods. Volcano eruptions have been known to knock down entire forests. An erupting volcano can trigger tsunamis, flashfloods, earthquakes, mudflows and rockfalls. More than 80 percent of the earth’s surface is volcanic in origin. The sea floor and some mountains were formed by countless volcanic eruptions. Gaseous emissions from volcano formed the earth’s atmosphere.
The word volcano comes from the little island of Vulcano in the Mediterranean Sea off Sicily. Centuries ago, the people living in this area believed that Vulcano was the chimney of the forge of Vulcan( Lat. Volcanus)–the blacksmith of the Roman gods.
US Coast Guard riding in a Hurricane
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On October 16, 1979 in Nice, France; an undersea landslide generated 2 tsunamis and resulted in several deaths. This “submarine landslide” in the Mediterranean caused a tsunami that struck the French Riviera without warning. The sea retreated 975 feet before rushing back in the form of two 32-foot-high waves along the 37 miles of effected coastline. It was what scientists refer to as a “near-source tsunami.” Sometimes, the only indication of such a tsunami comes when water recedes quickly from the shore. The first wave hits within minutes, allowing no time for any kind of official warning. Near-source tsunamis are accompanied by ground-shaking, which, if severe enough, can cause evacuation routes to become blocked by debris.
Tsunami! is hosted and maintained at the University of Washington by the Department of Earth and Space Sciences. This website is dedicated to providing general information about tsunamis, their causes and history as well as what to do in case of a tsunami.
Surviving a Tsunami – Lessons from Chile, Hawaii, and Japan (If you read nothing else, read this) This is a USGS publication (available online) that details how to survive a tsunami. It is based on personal accounts of the tsunami generated by the 1960 magnitude-9.5 earthquake in Chile.
RAILROADS ON THE REBOUND
|Over the last 50+ years, railroads have changed a lot. Now they are about to change again.
It is all about a combination of economic factors and climate factors.
Since 1950 , railroads have consolidated. Freight moved from a “box car mentality” to a “unit train,mentality”. Passenger went from a robust business to a “caretaker” arrangement called AMTRAK. This happened as everybody could drive for free on the Interstate Highway System or fly on an airline system where the government subsidized both airlines and airports. In the meantime, railroad express and railroad post offices went “down the tubes”. The old Post Office Department and the Railway Express Agency could not adjust to the new way. UPS and Fex Ex could.
| Carbon Calculator
What’s the most environmentally-friendly way to transport goods? The answer is freight rail. The EPA estimates that every ton-mile of freight that moves by rail instead of by highway reduces greenhouse emissions by two-thirds. But what does that really mean? Our easy-to-use carbon calculator will estimate the amount of carbon dioxide that can be prevented from entering our environment just by using freight rail instead of trucks. We’ll even tell you how many seedlings you’d need to plant to have the same effect.
>>>>>>Disposition Of Circus Trains
The Indiana Harbor Belt